Wikipedia defines Coin flipping, coin tossing, or heads or tails as “the practice of throwing a coin in the air to choose between two alternatives, sometimes to resolve a dispute between two parties. It is a form of sortition which inherently has only two possible and equally likely outcomes.”
According the RECOMMENDATION Option #4 of the IPAI Independent Panel Report, it states:
“The Board should allow the Almighty God to choose who, between these two gentlemen, Chief Esse Esse and Mazi Elesie Eke, should lead Igbere as IPAI president in the next 3 years. The best way to allow God to make this choice for IPAI is to CONDUCT A COIN TOSS where one of the two gentlemen would choose a HEAD and the other automatically chooses a TAIL or vice versa. WHOEVER WINS THE COIN TOSS SHOULD BECOME THE IPAI PRESIDENT FOR THE NEXT 3 YEARS”
This recommendation was quickly rejected by the so called “Minority Reporters” and allegedly signed by 3 members of the Independent Panel namely, Onyechere Anyaso, Paul Anyaso and Kingsley Ejituru David.
The ‘Minority Reporters’ stated as follows:
“Our Position: We strongly disagree with the above recommendation. While possible that the “COIN TOSS” toss solution proffered might have had a place in the Stone Age, we cannot resort to this solution to “elect” a president in the 21st century. We believe that this solution will immediately lend the association to tremendous outside ridicule, while raising question about the wisdom of its membership”.
As we can see, the Coin Tosses may have started long time ago just like COUNTING, it is still in use and continue to be used to determine possible outcome in a close contest including elections where the electoral committee or umpires insist on ensuring fairness to both parties. In highly contested dispute coin toss is one of the tools used to give each party 50% – 50% (equal) chance of winning because it a mathematical concept that removes biases.
Therefore, the conclusion by the Minority Reporters that “coin toss” might have had a place in “stone age” is just ridiculous at best as it was aimed at misinforming the good people of Igbere. WATCH VIDEO (US Presidential Election 2016 between Hillary Clinton and Bernie Sanders).
Politics: Coin Tosses Used Across the World (Source: Wikipedia)
In December 2006 Australian television networks Seven and Ten, which shared the broadcasting of the 2007 AFL Season, decided who would broadcast the Grand Final with the toss of a coin. Network Ten won. In Australia it is commonly used in cricket.
In some jurisdictions, a coin is flipped to decide between two candidates who poll equal number of votes in an election, or two companies tendering equal prices for a project. For example, a coin toss decided a City of Toronto tender in 2003 for painting lines on 1,605 km of city streets: the bids were $161,110.00 ($100.3800623 per km), $146,584.65 ($91.33 per km, exactly), and two equal bids of $111,242.55 ($69.31 per km, exactly).
“Drawing of lots” is one of the methods to break ties to determine a winner in an election; the coin flip is considered an acceptable variant. Each candidate will be given five chances to flip a coin; the candidate with the most number of “heads” wins. The 2013 mayoral election in San Teodoro, Oriental Mindoro was decided on a coin flip, with a winner being proclaimed after the second round when both candidates remained tied in the first round.
In the United Kingdom, if a local or national election has resulted in a tie where candidates receive exactly the same number of votes, then the winner can be decided either by drawing straws/lots, coin flip, or drawing a high card in pack of cards.